CMarZ Species Page




Calanus glacialis (Jaschnov, 1955)



Calanus finmarchicus glacialis (Dana, 1849)


Please go to Marine Planktonic Copepods to access the species page hosted by the Marine Planktonic Copepods Website. We thank the UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMS 2348, Observatoire Océanologique, F-66651, Banyuls-sur-Mer, France for permission to access their species pages.


Retrieved 0000-00-00 from Marine Planktonic Copepods

  Kingdom Animalia -- animals
   Phylum Arthropoda -- arthropods
  Subphylum Crustaceaca -- Brünnich, 1772
  Class Maxillopoda -- Dahl, 1956
  Subclass Copepoda -- Milne-Edwards, 1840
  Infraclass Neocopepoda -- Huys & Boxshall, 1991
  Superorder Gymnoplea -- Giesbrecht, 1882
  Order Calanoida G. O. Sars, 1903
  Family Calanidae Dana, 1846
  Genus Calanus Leach, 1819
  Subgenus nd
  Species glacialis Jaschnov, 1955

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Distinguishing features:

A calanid copepod of the genus Calanus. In the North Atlantic, C. glacialis can be confused with congeners C. finmarchicus in the N. Atlantic and C. marshallae in the N. Pacific which both overlap in size and range with C. glacialis. Other species of Calanus overlapping in range with C. glacialis are C. hyperboreus, a significantly larger species and C. helgolandicus, a significantly smaller species.

Adult Calanus glacialis can be distinguished from:

C. finmarchicus by:

1. the more elongated outer ramus of the left 5th leg in the male.

2. the female head shape

3. the female 5th leg basipod of C. glacialis has a curved interior margin; C. finmarchicus' is straight.

4. larger size than C. finmarchicus (female prosome 1.86 mm (Murphy & Cohen, 1978) - 3.28 mm (Frost, 1974); male prosome, 2.08 mm - 3.16 mm (Frost, 1974))

5. shape of posterolateral margin of the fifth thoracic segment Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)

6. shape of ventral surface of genital segment Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)

7. the pore signature pattern of integumental organs as described by Fleminger and Hulsemann (1977).

8. the geographical range of C. glacialis is more northerly than C.finmarchicus in the western N. Atlantic and also occurs in the polar waters of the N. Pacific where C.finmarchicus is absent.

C. marshallae by:

1. the photoreceptor of C. marshallae is very large (Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977; Frost, 1974)

2. on average, C. glacialis is larger than C. marshallae (female prosome 2.7-4.2, Frost, 1974) although their sizes overlap.

3. the female 5th leg basipod of C. marshallae has a slightly more curved interior margin and fewer denticles, on average (Frost, 1974).

4. shape of ventral surface of genital segment Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)

5. the caudal ramus of C. marshallae is about twice as long as wide but less than the width of the anal segment whereas in C. glacialis and C. finmarchicus, the length is usually more than twice the width and about equal to the width of the anal segment. (Frost, 1974)

6. geographic distribution: C. marshallae has been identified only in the N. Pacific.

C. helgolandicus by:

1. the more evenly rounded frontal part of the female head; C. helgolandicus is more pointed.

2. the longer caudal rami.

3. larger size than C. helgolandicus (female prosome 1.98-2.80mm, Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)

4. the geographical range of C. helgolandicus is centered in the eastern N. Atlantic and warmer waters of the western N. Atlantic while C. glacialis is primarily an Arctic species found in both the N. Atlantic and N. Pacific.

C. hyperboreus by:

1. the fifth posterolateral margin of the fifth thoracic segment has pointed tips on C. hyperboreus male, female, C5 and C4.

2. smaller length than C. hyperboreus. Female C. hyperboreus prosome: 5.9-7.4 (Hirche, 1997), total length: 7-10mm (Wilson, 1932), male: total length: 6-7mm (Wilson, 1932)



Prosome length:
female; 3.36 mm (Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977) - 4.08 mm (Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977)
female (Gulf of Maine); 3.04 mm (Frost, 1974) - 3.78 mm (Frost, 1974)
female (Greenland Sea); 2.89 mm (Frost, 1974) - 4.25 mm (Frost, 1974)
female (Barents Sea); 2.87 mm (Frost, 1974) - 4.13 mm (Frost, 1974)
female (Central Arctic Ocean); 2.98 mm (Frost, 1974) - 4.34 mm (Frost, 1974)
female; 2.77 mm (Frost, 1974) - 4.34 mm (Frost, 1974)
male; 2.98 mm (Frost, 1974) - 4.18 mm (Frost, 1974)

Total length:
female; 3.6 mm (Frost, 1974) - 5.46 mm (Frost, 1974)
male; 3.9 mm (Frost, 1974) - 5.36 mm (Frost, 1974)


NW Atlantic, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea, Norwegian Sea, Central Arctic Ocean; NW Pacific, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, 40N to 90N (Fleminger & Hulsemann, 1977, Frost, 1970)

Depth distribution: epipelagic (0-500 m), or mesopelagic (500-1000 m).



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This information was compiled and submitted by N. Copley.

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Comparison of sizes of 3 common northern Calanus species. a. C. hyperboreus, b. C. glacialis, c. C. finmarchicus.
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Photo by S. Kwasniewski / IO PAS.

Distribution Map

Specimen Data Map from OBIS

The data are from the following sources: SAHFOS_CPR_ZOOPLANKTON (The Sir Alister Hardy Foundation) Resolute Passage Copepod Distribution (OBIS Canada) Davis Strait and Baffin Bay Zooplankton (OBIS Canada) ZooGene A DNA Sequence Database for Calanoid Copepods and Euphausiids NODC WOD01 Plankton Database Atlantic Reference Centre (OBIS Canada)
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Program, Version August 30, 2012/V1.09
Page generated Fri Dec 9 08:40:55 2022 from the live database